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BOOK REVIEW by Esther Nelson

Dr. Morrow’s e-book is a treasure chest of information that additionally consists of all kinds of scholarly opinions concerning hijab.  His meticulous scholarship, laser-like imaginative and prescient, and accessible writing model clearly differentiate between what the Qur’an requires of girls’s costume and what the jurists (overwhelmingly male) have enforced.  Morrow’s e-book can be a useful addition to Islamic Research curricula within the academy, but it’s understandable sufficient to a lay individual all in favour of studying about hijab.

I totally loved studying this substantial quantity.  I acquired a fuller image of the which means of hijab over time.  Dr. Morrow is evident—ladies ought to not be compelled (legally or socially) to put on hijab.  Muslims are fond of claiming: There isn’t a priesthood in Islam.  There isn’t a mediator between a person and Allah.  But, many Muslim clergy implement a patriarchal bent (that social system absorbed from their tradition and society) to their juristic rulings that constrict ladies from making a free selection.

Dr. Riffat Hassan, Professor Emerita, College of Louisville, introduces Dr. Morrow’s “exhaustive and meticulous analysis” that focuses on varied viewpoints concerning hijab. Hijab means to cover or separate.  Hijab got here to imply “scarf.”  It was imposed on Muslim ladies as a option to exclude them from the sociopolitical sphere (Lamrabet). “The hijab is an emblem of subordination to male authority and dominance” (Morrow). 

CHAPTER 1—“Girls’s Gown within the Qur’an and Hadith.” The Qur’an is Muslim Scripture. Hadith is a set of narratives about Prophet Muhammad. The dominant view amongst Islamic students right this moment insists that Muslim ladies utterly cowl themselves. The “spectrum of opinion,” although, is (and has been) assorted.  The Qur’an expects people to cowl their ‘awrah (genitals) in public and when with different individuals not intently associated. The Qur’an doesn’t use the phrase hijab (hair overlaying) moderately it makes use of the time period jilbab, overlaying ‘awrah, an idea “sure by tradition and time.”

 Modesty is the precept. The Qur’an exemplifies modesty utilizing clothes practices in Arabia (600 CE).  Jurists (creators of Islamic regulation primarily based on Qur’an and hadith), a lot of whom are misogynistic control-freaks, have made hijab obligatory, force-feeding “misogynistic materials as if it had been the Phrase of God.” 

CHAPTER 2—“Are Girls Vulvas?” Girls’s our bodies and their voices have been thought-about ‘awrah, making them “strolling vulvas.” Therefore, many Muslim ladies really feel bare with out their veils.  Some Muslim ladies, notably Western converts, discover the hijab “liberating,” liberating them from objectification.  Many Muslim ladies, although, view the hijab as oppressive.  Muslims could declare that hijab is about modesty, respect, and chastity, nevertheless, “Islamic” costume is all about defending males from ladies. Apparently sufficient, solely free ladies (not slave ladies) had been required to veil, nevertheless, we’re underneath no obligation to comply with the views of people that lived over a thousand years in the past.

CHAPTER 3—“Boobs, Bosoms and Past” demonstrates how jurists have made a travesty of their Scripture, insisting that properly-covered ladies be utterly cloaked. The Qur’an requires that girls (and males) cowl their genitals and recommends ladies cowl their bosoms. Maybe “the animosity in direction of ladies present in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam…was a part of a gender battle [where] the followers of God the Father wished to suppress any indicators of God the Mom….The brand new non secular male supremacists wished to erase each signal of the Goddess.”

The Qur’an referred to as without spending a dime Muslim ladies to cowl their bosoms for his or her safety, reflecting “sickening social circumstances.” The bigger query is: “Why is the burden positioned on ladies on the subject of chastity, purity, and honor?” Why not maintain Muslim males who sexually harass ladies accountable? The hijab finally shouldn’t be about clothes, “it’s about piety, reverence, and righteousness.”

CHAPTER 4—“Foundations of Falsehood Constructed on Shifting Sands” contrasts enslaved ladies’s costume with free ladies. How can any scholar declare the hijab to be about modesty when classical jurists forbad slave ladies to cowl their bosoms? God revealed one e-book—the Qur’an. Muslims have used different books (hadith and phrases of Imams [Muslim leaders]) to create regulation, usually placing the Phrase of Man above that of God. “Interpretations mustn’t ever be accepted uncritically.”

CHAPTER 5—“The Imposition of ‘Islamic’ Gown Upon Girls” offers a historic evolution of Muslim ladies’s costume and “demonstrates how the veil, a pre-Islamic customized…turned a so-called Islamic obligation…turning ladies into strolling vulvas and vaginas.” Jurists rallied financial and political help for a few of their extra excessive wardrobe rulings. Traditionally, the veil is “a cultural norm [more] than a non secular crucial.” Is the Islamic hijab actually Islamic? “The dominant type of Islam…propagated right this moment is radical, political Islam….The veil is an article of clothes. It’s not a divine obligation, a dogma, or a doctrine.”

CHAPTER 6—“The Reemergence of Reformist, Rationalist, Secularist, Qur’anist, Progressive, and Revivalist Voices” appears to be like at what the Qur’an says about hijab in gentle of modernity. Patriarchy and sexual segregation are incompatible with the Qur’an’s common message. “For the veil to be a free selection, it can’t be an obligation….Solidarity of Western allies [wearing hijab] is damaging to Muslim ladies who wrestle in opposition to the sexism of the coerced hijab” (Bestandji).

CHAPTER 7—“The Views of Males on the Hijab,” unfolds the work of a number of male students, intellectuals, writers, and leaders. Whereas there are variations amongst them, they concur that the Qur’an doesn’t mandate hijab. “To undertake the hijab, which was invented by jurists [in early Islam] is an act of human regression” (Bestandji).

CHAPTER 8—“The Views of Girls on the Hijab” unpacks views of girls intellectuals, lecturers, students, and activists. “The veil is now not the signal of an anthropological tradition however of a political tradition….I don’t settle for a political tradition that discriminates in opposition to ladies” (Tamzali).  Amina Wadud, a contributor to FAR says, “Should you assume that the distinction between heaven and hell is 45 inches of fabric, boy will you be shocked.”

CHAPTER 9—“A  Lengthy, Lengthy Solution to Go” reminds us that hijab has pre-Islamic origins and rooted in patriarchy, misogyny, and male supremacy.  Morrow believes “secular governments ought to…cease permitting non secular and cultural communities to transgress human rights.” Most Muslim ladies assume it’s their proper to decide on whether or not or to not put on hijab.  Patriarchal and misogynistic governments, although, don’t give ladies the appropriate NOT to put on hijab. “For reasonable, secular, feminists from the Muslim world, the sight of Western ladies voluntarily adopting the image of retrograde fundamentalist Islam is a…slap within the face.”  

Morrow, a Muslim, longs to additional justice, equality, and love in Islam, not letter-of-the regulation reductionism. “The hijab means nothing.  The center means all the pieces.”

Morrow’s level is that “Islamic” costume shouldn’t be one thing static, however influenced significantly by those that maintain energy.  Dr. Morrow notes that the Qur’an solely requires a lady’s ‘awrah or genitals to be lined.  Masking her breasts is really helpful.  In the course of the early Muslim interval, sure, ladies wore the jilbab–a loin fabric of kinds.  Over time, completely different rulings have been made by the jurists–those that make legal guidelines concerning the Muslim group primarily based on their understanding of Qur’an and hadith.  These rulings concerning ladies’s costume have modified over time.  These rulings (if you’ll) will not be just like the rulings of the Catholic church the place the Pope has affect and energy over ALL Catholics.  Structurally, the Muslim group doesn’t have that very same type of hierarchy.  It’s extra localized.  Some may say, extra tribal.  So, for instance, right this moment, the rulings concerning ladies’s costume differ relying on geography.  Saudi Arabia and Afghanistan (for probably the most half) require full protection of girls’s our bodies when within the public sphere.  That’s comparatively new–for the reason that Nineteen Eighties in Afghanistan.  Should you see photos of Muslim ladies in Afghanistan from the Seventies, most are in trendy, Western costume.  Saudi Arabian ladies, being extra lower off from the remainder of the world (till the oil increase) wore lengthy robes as did so many desert-living human beings as that labored higher throughout the sizzling days and cooler nights in addition to in sandstorms!

BIO of writer John Andrew Morrow obtained his Ph.D. from the College of Toronto, the place he targeted on Hispanic, Indigenous, and Islamic Research. He has additionally accomplished over 4 a long time of Islamic seminary research, each independently and by the hands of a sequence of Muslim students. Dr. Morrow has taught at universities all over the world and reached the rank of Professor. Acknowledged as a Grasp Trainer and a Distinguished School Member, he obtained a Scholar Impression Award, an Interfaith Service Award, and a Certificates of Particular Congressional Recognition. A prolific, pioneering, and path-forging writer, educational, and activist, he’s thought-about of the main authorities on Islam and one of the influential American Muslims. You could find his e-book right here.

Creator: Esther Nelson

Esther Nelson teaches programs in Non secular Research (Human Spirituality, World Ethics, Religions of the World, and Girls in Islam) at Virginia Commonwealth College, Richmond, Virginia. She has revealed two books. VOICE OF AN EXILE REFLECTIONS ON ISLAM was written in shut collaboration with Nasr Abu Zaid, an Egyptian, Islamic Research scholar who fled Egypt (1995) when he was labeled an apostate by the Cairo courtroom of appeals. She co-authored WHAT IS RELIGIOUS STUDIES? A JOURNEY OF INQUIRY with Kristin Swenson, a former colleague. When not educating, Esther travels to numerous locations all through the world.

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